Europeanization of Law in Poland from the point of view of Constitutional Law

  • Andrzej Szmyt University of Gdansk
  • Anna Rytel-Warzocha University of Gdansk
Keywords: Constitutional law, EU accession, Poland, accession treaty, EU law

Abstract

The article is devoted to the challenges and problems concerning the accession of the Republic of Poland in the European Union. The authors analyze the constitutional bases of the accession to the EU as well as basic legal acts which have regulated the mutual relations between Poland and the EU.

The Republic of Poland has acceded to the European Union by virtue of the Accession Treaty which was signed on 16 April 2003 in Athens and entered into force on 1 May 2004.

From the point of view of constitutional law, there were several issues which concerned the preparation for EU accession at the national level. They were especially related to: 1) the establishment of legal basis allowing for the integration the law of the European Union with Polish constitutional law, 2) the harmonization of the Polish legal system with the legal order of the European Union, 3) the establishment of the ratification procedure of the Accession Treaty. All these issues required new legal regulations to be implemented to the Constitution. That was why the new Constitution of the Republic of Poland adopted on 2 April 1997 included two provisions relevant for the issues concerning the integration with the European Union - art. 90 and art. 91 para

The main problems presented in the article concern the relation of Polish national law (in particular the Constitution) to the sources of primary and secondary European law, the harmonization of Polish law with EU law (constitutional amendments referring to “EU matters”, necessary amendments of statutory law and the provisions of the Standing Orders of the Sejm and the Senate), as well as institutional changes in Poland determined by the EU membership.

References

The judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 24 November 2010, case no K 32/09 (OTK – A 2010, No 9, item 108). See
also – „Selected rulings of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal Concerning the law of the European Union (2003-2014)”, Wydawnictwo
Trybunału Konstytucyjnego, Warszawa 2014.
Case no. K 18/04.
Official Journal of Laws „Dziennik Ustaw”, No 78, item483, with later amendments.
This has been emphasised by J. Galster: Konstytucja Rzeczypospolitej wobec postępów integracji europejskiej. Diagnoza stanu europeizacji ustawy zasadniczej /in:/ E. Gdulewicz, H. Zięba – Załucka (ed.): Dziesięć lat Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Rzeszów 2007, p. 56.
See: A. Szmyt: O dwóch przykładach wątpliwości w sprawie zamierzeń legislacyjnych /in:/ R.M. Czarny, K. Spryszak (ed.):
Państwo i prawo wobec współczesnych wyzwań. Vol. 3 – Zagadnienia prawa konstytucyjnego. Księga Jubileuszowa Profesora Jerzego Jaskierni, Toruń 2012, p. 176; also: A. Szmyt, B. Banaszak: International and European Law in the Polish Legal System, „Gdańskie Studia Prawnicze” vol. XXXVI, Gdańsk 2016, wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, p. 451 passim, in particular: 457–461.
See: in particular the judgement of the Constitutional Tribunal of 29 May 2009 (case No Kpt 2/08) concerning the content and limitations of the Prime Minister’s and President’s competences relating to the representation of the Republic of Poland at the meetings of the European Council.
Sz. Pawłowski: Prawo unijne a prawo krajowe /in:/ A. Szmyt (ed.): Leksykon prawa konstytucyjnego. 100 podstawowych pojęć, C.H. Beck, 2nd edition, Warszawa 2016, pp. 279–281.
L. Garlicki: Polskie prawo konstytucyjne. Zarys wykładu, Wolters Kluwer, Warszawa 2016, p. 485.
The judgements of the constitutional Tribunal of 29 September 1997 (K 15/97), 28 January 2003 (K 2/02), 27 May 2003
(K 11/03), 21 April 2004 (K 33/03), 31 May 2004 (K 15/04), 2 July 2007(K 41/05), 24 November 2010 (K. 32/09).
The review of the opinions – A. Kustra: „Euronowelizacja” w projektach ustaw o zmianie Konstytucji RP. Próba oceny,
„Przegląd Sejmowy” 2011, No 3, pp. 35-37.
"Zmiany w Konstytucji RP dotyczące członkostwa Polski w Unii Europejskiej. Dokumenty z prac zespołu naukowego
powołanego przez Marszałka Sejmu”, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa 2010.
These were the draft amendments of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland included in the Sejm dokuments No 3399,
No 3598 and No 3687. The two latter ones were comprihensive. The leading role was played then by the draft law registered as the Sejm documnet No 3598, introduced to the Sejm by the President of the Republic.
Official Journal of Laws „Dzienni Ustaw”, No 57, item 507, with later amendments.
Official Journal of Laws „Dzienni Ustaw”, No 213, item 1395, with later amendments.
Official Journal of Laws „Dzienni Ustaw”, No 52 item 515, with later amendments.
Official Journal of Laws „Dzienni Ustaw” 2009, No 161, item 12277, with later amendments.
See: B. Pawłowski (ed.): Rola Sejmu w stanowieniu i wykonywaniu prawa Unii Europejskiej, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe,
Warszawa 2015.
The Standing Orders of the Sejmu of the Republic of Poland of 30 July 1992 (unified text – the Official Journal of Laws
„Moni tor Polski” 2012, item 32, with later amendments).
In a comparative perspective, also in relations to Poland, see: M. Serowaniec: Parlamentarne Komisje do Spraw Europejskich, Wydawnictwo Sejmowe, Warszawa 2016.
Art. 34 para. 2a and art. 75 b of the Standing Orders of the Senate of the Republic of Poland of 23 November 1990 (unified text – the Official Journal of Laws „Monitor Polski” 2010, No 39, item 542, with later amendments).
In case No K 24/04 (concerning the provisions of the law of 2004 on the cooperation of the government and the parliament in EU matters).
See: A. Szmyt: O współpracy rządu z parlamentem w sprawach związanych z członkostwem Polski w Unii Europejskiej,
„Gdańskie Studia Prawnicze” 2011, vol. XXV, pp. 422–423.
On some more detailed issues – ibidem, passim.
The Official Journal of Laws „Dziennik Ustaw” 2007, No 59, item 404, with later amendments.
The Official Journal of Laws „Dziennik Ustaw” No 239, item 2039; see more – A. Szmyt: Elementy praktyki sejmowej pod
rządami Konstytucji RP (1997–2007), Gdańsk 2008, pp. 392–397 and idem – Węzłowe problemy procesu legislacyjnego w Sejmie i Senacie RP /in:/ J. Jirasek, Z. Witkowski (eds.): Promeny delby moci. Delba moci v ustavnim systemu Ceske republiky a Polske republiky, Olomounc 2015, p. 63 and next, in particular p. 14.
See also: Sz. Pawłowski: Notyfikacja – obowiązek informowania UE o projektowanych krajowych aktach prawnych, „infos”
No 9/2016, Biuro Analiz Sejmowych Kancelarii Sejmu (ISSN 2082-0666).
The judgement of the European Court of Justice of the European Union in joint cases Fortuna sp. z o.o. (C-213/11), Grand sp. z o.o. (C-214/11) and Forta sp. z o.o. (C-217/11) v. Director of the Customs Chamber in Gdynia.
The judgements of the Constitutional Tribunal of 11 May 2005 in case No K 18/04 and of 24 November 2010 in case
No K 32/09.
In particular – the judgements of the Constitutional Tribunal of 17 December 2009 (U 6/08) and 13 October 2010 (Kp /09).
More about the drafts see: A. Szmyt: Członkostwo i perspektywy jego rozwoju w UE a projekty zmian Konstytucji /in:/
Z.Witkowski, V. Jiraskova and others (ed.): Aktualne problemy współczesnego konstytucjonalizmu. Europeizacja Konstytucji Republiki Czeskiej i Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Wydawnictwo UMK, Toruń 2014, pp. 27–51.
How to Cite
Szmyt, A., & Rytel-Warzocha, A. (1). Europeanization of Law in Poland from the point of view of Constitutional Law. Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, (3), 243-250. https://doi.org/10.36695/2219-5521.3.2019.42
Section
The legal system of Ukraine and international law, comparative legal studies