OECD acts as instruments of soft international law
A characteristic feature of the modern system of international relations is that the not only the international legal norms, but also
the rules of soft international law are the regulators, with the constantly growing share of the latter. There is a great variety of concepts
regarding the nature of soft international law in modern doctrine of international law. However, it is indisputable fact that international
organizations play significant role in its development. One of such international organizations is the Organization for Economic Cooperation
and Development, whose rule-making activities are largely implemented through the adoption of legally non-binding documents
but at the same time they have a significant impact on the behavior of the international law subjects. The organization unites 36 industrialized
countries. Thus, of the total number of regulations of various legal force adopted or developed under the auspices of the OECD
during the entire period of existence of this international organization, acts of soft international law account for approximately 78 per
cent. In total, the OECD adopted 454 regulations, including 13 international treaties, 87 decisions, 300 recommendations, 36 declarations
and 18 other legally non-binding international instruments. Recommendations are adopted in accordance with Art. 5, 6 and 7 of
the OECD Convention and paragraph 18B of the Rules of Procedure of the Organization and are transferred to the Member States for
consideration. So the Member States may, if they deem it appropriate, implement them in their national law. OECD Declarations are
legally optional framework documents establishing the general principles and long-term goals of cooperation between states within the
framework of this international organization. In general, declarations are not acts of the OECD within the meaning of Art. 5 of the
OECD Convention, but in practice their implementation is monitored by OECD bodies. Apart from recommendations and declarations
OECD also practices the following types of legal non-binding regulations: Arrangement and Understanding which can be described as
gentleman’s agreements and also the recommendations of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) OECD. With all these do -
cuments, the OECD regulates international cooperation on a wide range of socio-economic issues, including the fight against corruption,
taxation, regional development, environmental protection, finance and investment, trade, industry, social policy, consumer protection,
science and education, shipbuilding and transport, energy, etc.
2. Weil, P. (1983). Towards Relative Normativity in International Law? The American Journal of International Law, 77 (3), 414-415.
3. Boyle, A. (2014). Soft Law in International Law-Making. International Law. Fourth edition. In Evans Malcolm D. (Ed.). Oxford University Press, 120-121.
4. Kashlach, O. (2006). Normy «miahkoho prava»: poniatye y pryznaky. Zhurnal mezhdunarodnoho prava y mezhdunarodnykh otnoshenyj,2, 27 [in Russian].
5. Tychyna, V.P. (2019). International legal status of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kharkiv: Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, 7 [in Ukrainian].
6. Salzman, J. (2005). Decentralized Administrative Law in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Law and Contemporary Problems, 68, 189-224.
7. Bonucci, N. (2011). The OECD at Fifty: Some Observations on the Evolving Nature of an International Organization. The George Washington International Law Review, 43 (2), 239-254.
8. Schäfer, A. (2006). Resolving Deadlock: Why International Organisations Introduce Soft Law. European Law Journal, 12 (2), 194-208.
9. Marcussen, M. (2005). OECD Governance Through Soft Law. Soft law in governance and regulation: an interdisciplinary analysis. In Mörth Ulrika (Ed.). Cheltenham, Northhampton. E. Elgar Pub, 103-128.
10. Błachucki, M. (2016). The Role of the OECD in Development and Enforcement of Competition Law. e-Pública–Revista Eletrónica de Direito Público, 3 (3), 169-200.
11. Santner, A. (2011). A Soft Law Mechanism for Corporate Responsibility: How the Updated OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises Promote Business for the Future. The George Washington International Law Review, 43 (2), 375-388.
12. Davarnejad, L. (2011). In the Shadow of Soft Law: The Handling of Corporate Social Responsibility Disputes under the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2011 (2), 351-385.
13. Buchholtz, G. (2020). Social and Labour Standards in the OECD Guidelines: Enforcement Mechanisms. International Organizations Law Review, 17 (1), 133-152.
14. OECD Legal Instruments. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments?mode=advanced
15. Tychyna, V.P. (2017). Pravova kharakterystyka rekomendatsij orhanizatsii ekonomichnoho spivrobitnytstva ta rozvytku. Naukovyj visnyk Mizhnarodnoho humanitarnoho universytetu. Seriia : Yurysprudentsiia, 26, 124 [in Ukrainian].
16. Salzman, J. (2005). Decentralized Administrative Law in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Law and Contemporary Problems, 68, 192.
17. Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. URL: https://www.oecd.org/general/conventionontheorganisationforeconomicco-operationanddevelopment.htm
18. Rules of Procedure of Organisation. URL: https://www.oecd.org/legal/Rules%20of%20Procedure%20OECD%20Oct%202013.pdf
19. OECD Legal Instruments. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments?mode=normal&typeIds=2&themeIds=14&dateType=adoption
20. Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0144
21. Levashenko, A.D., Ermokhyn, Y.S., Lebedeva, S.K. (2018). Prysoedynenye Rossyy k Deklaratsyy OESR o mezhdunarodnykh ynvestytsyiakh y mnohonatsyonal'nykh predpryiatyiakh 1976 h.: novye vozmozhnosty dlia prodvyzhenyia natsyonal'nykh ynteresov. Upravlencheskoe konsul'tyrovanye,1, 73 [in Russian].
22. Agreement in letters between Ukrainian government and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to adhere to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises, related Recommendations and procedural decisions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Council. URL: https://www.me.gov.ua/Documents/Detail?lang=uk-UA&id=8e01bb0e-9d5b-4785-a3bb-aba7cd8d40f2&title
23. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. A Strategy for Enlargement and Outreach. Report by the Chair of the Heads of Delegation Working Group on the Enlargement Strategy and Outreach, Ambassador Seiichiro Noboru, 45. URL: https://www.oecd.org/global-relations/globalrelationsstrategy/37434513.pdf
24. Decision of the Council on the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0307
25. Third Revised Decision of the Council concerning National Treatment. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0263
26. Decision of the Council on Conflicting Requirements being imposed on Multinational Enterprises. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0261
27. Decision of the Council on International Investment Incentives and Disincentives. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0213
28. Declaration on Environmental Policy. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0134
29. Declaration on Trade Policy. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0187
30. Declaration on International Science and Technology Co-operation for Sustainable Development. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0320
31. Declaration on Sovereign Wealth Funds and Recipient Country Policies. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0365
32. Declaration on Public Sector Innovation. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0450
33. Declaration on Policies for Building Better Futures for Regions, Cities and Rural Areas. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0448
34. Declaration on Better Policies to Achieve a Productive, Sustainable and Resilient Global Food System. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0423
35. Mel'nyk, S.O. (2014). Dzhentl'mens'ka uhoda. Entsyklopediia mizhnarodnoho prava: U 3 t. / In S. Shemshuchenko, V. N. Denysov et al. (Eds.). Instytut derzhavy i prava im. V. M. Korets'koho NAN Ukrainy, A-D. Kyiv: Akademperiodyka, 762.
36. Sector Understanding on Export Credits for Civil Aircraft. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-5011
37. Revised General Arrangement for the Progressive Removal of Obstacles to Normal Competitive Conditions in the Shipbuilding Industry. URL: https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-5010