Passport: global challenges – local solutions

Keywords: passport, citizenship, Nansen passport, refugees, stateless persons, bipatrism, cosmopolites


This article deals with the origin and trajectory of the passport, its multifaceted nature in modern life. Firstly, a passport is a standardized
and written, visualized, and anthropometric, personalized proof of citizenship of its bearer, but not always. Secondly, it is a
proof of identification, regardless of the time, place, and mode of acquisition of citizenship of a particular state (in the form of personal
data processing) and control over them by that state. Finally, it is a paper document (actually machine-readable) that gives its bearer
rights, responsibilities, and privileges guarantee his/her freedom of movement (unlimited and indefinite entry into and exit from the
state of citizenship) and immunity (from extradition and expulsion).
In the time of globalization and omnipresent migration, there is a myriad of modern researches worldwide related to passport,
citizenship, person identification, etc. Up to my mind, we can shortlist such authors as Atossa Araxia Abrahamian (cosmopolites and
global citizen), Leo Benedictus (history of the passport), Claire Benoit (the passport in the context of citizenship), Evelyn Capassakis
(passport revocations or denials), Jelena Džankić (the global market for investor citizenship), Yossi Harpaz (dual nationality as a worldwide
asset), Martin Lloyd and Craig Robertson (the history of the passport), Mark B Salter (the passport in international relations),
Ayelet Shachar (the shifting border of immigration regulation), Peter J Spiro (the past and future of dual citizenship), John C Torpey
(the invention of the passport), James Tully (on global citizenship), Patrick Weil (citizenship, passports, and the legal identity of persons).
In modern days this most traveled document in the world is a perfect political and legal instrument used by the particular state
to identify its citizens, keep them in the borders, and not let them enjoy the freedom of movement extra territory. In this article, I trace
the history of the passport within the law, international relations, and globalization. A separate piece of information is related to its evolution
during centuries. It is interesting how passports and their carriers (citizens of a particular state) are handled at international borders?
And what are the fundamental functions of the passport in global mobility?
In 2020 not only states globally in terms of preservation of national security and identity but also health stop (at least hamper)
migration. “This virus (COVID-19) does not have a passport”, declared French President Emmanuel Macron on 12 March 2020 in a
primary television address to the French people. Non-essential travel when you possess not enough worthy passport stops you beyond
the borders of the European Union. You are not allowed to enter unless you acquire dual nationality and obtain a second alternative

How to Cite
Sofinska, I. (2020). Passport: global challenges – local solutions. Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, 1(3), 342-348.
The legal system of Ukraine and international law, comparative legal studies