Concerning recognition of a person as a victim in a criminal proceeding

Keywords: criminal proceedings, injured person, the right to procedural communication

Abstract

Determining the moment when a person is recognized as a victim in a criminal proceeding is a matter of debate in modern doctrine, and the procedural aspect of communicative issues recognizing a victim includes a number of procedural inconsistencies still unresolved in the CPC of Ukraine.

When investigating the problem of recognizing a victim, I would like to concur that the problem here is, first and foremost, here is the fact that if the prosecutor / prosecutor and prosecutor and the suspect, accused with the defense lawyers, have relatively equal authority, the victim is deprived of many procedural Opportunities that obviously do not correspond to at least two principles of criminal proceedings: equality before the law and the court and the adversarial parties, the freedom to file a court of evidence with them and to bring them to trial before conviction Vost (Articles 7, 10, 22 CPC of Ukraine)

It is necessary to make amendments and additions to Part 1 of Art. 55 CPC on the definition of a victim in a criminal proceeding in order to put it in the following version:

«An injured person in a criminal proceeding may be an individual who has suffered moral, physical or property damage or a threat to such damage caused by a criminal offense or socially dangerous act, as well as a legal entity who has caused property or non-pecuniary damage by a criminal offense or socially dangerous act».

We consider it expedient to put a paragraph. 1 part 7 cent. 55 CPC in the following edition:

«If a person who has been harmed by a criminal offense or a socially dangerous act has not filed a statement regarding the commission of a criminal offense against her or a petition for her involvement in the proceedings as a victim, the investigator, the prosecutor is obligated to recognize such person as the victim».

It is necessary to make changes to Part 1 of Art. 128 CPC in order to put it in the following wording:

«A person who has suffered property and / or moral (non-property) damage by a criminal offense or other socially dangerous act has the right during the criminal proceedings before the trial to bring a civil suit to a suspect, accused person or to a natural or legal person who, for the purpose of the law bears civil liability for damage caused by acts of a suspect, accused or insane person who committed a socially dangerous act».

References

Vapniarchuk, V.V. (2017) Teoriia i praktyka kryminal’noho protsesual’noho dokazuvannia. Kh. : Yurajt [in Ukrainian].
Ostrovs’ka, M.A. (2018) Protydiia zlochynnosti cherez vdoskonalennia protsesual’noho statusu poterpiloho. Protydiia zlochynnosti: teoriia ta praktyka: materialy VIII Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii (26 zhovtnia 2018 roku). Kyiv: Natsional’na akademiia prokuratury Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
Laryn, A.M. (1986) Rassledovanye po uholovnomu delu: protsessual’nye funktsyy. M.: Yuryd. lyt.
Senatorov, M.V. (2005) Poterpilyj vid zlochynu v kryminal’nomu pravi: avtoref.. kand.. iuryd. nauk : 12.00.08. Kh. [in Ukrainian].
Postanova VP VS vid 16.01.2019 r. URL: http://www.reyestr.court.gov.ua/Review/79298340?fbclid=IwAR12yR_YHCK6Jt6G
7cFtE7RK18ccdP5g2heM4U1gnnzGOKGiq-4CTznBJ6E [in Ukrainian].
Instruktsiia pro poriadok vedennia iedynoho obliku v orhanakh politsii zaiav i povidomlen’ pro vchyneni kryminal’ni pravoporushennia ta inshi podii, zatverdzhena Nakazom Ministerstva vnutrishnikh sprav Ukrainy vid 06.11.2015 № 1377. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1498-15 [in Ukrainian].
Polozhennia pro poriadok vedennia Yedynoho reiestru dosudovykh rozsliduvan’, zatverdzhenoho Nakazom Heneral’noi prokuratury Ukrainy 06.04.2016 № 139. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z0680-16 [in Ukrainian].
Hurtiieva, L.M. (2016) Analiz polozhen’ p. 5 ch. 1 st. 3 KPK Ukrainy schodo pochatku stadii dosudovoho rozsliduvannia. URL: http://dspace.onua.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/11300/6573/Gurt%20%20va%20Anal%20z%20polozhen’%20p.%205%20ch.%201%20st.%203%20KPK%20Ukra%20ni.pdf?sequence=1 [in Ukrainian].
Lukashkina, T.V. (2017) Poniattia poterpiloho u kryminal’nomu provadzhenni potrebuie vdoskonalennia URL: http://dspace.onua.edu.ua/bitstream/handle/11300/10896/Lukashkina%20%D0%A2%D0%BE%D0%BC%202_2017-151.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [in Ukrainian].
Kodeks postępowania karnego: ustawa z dnia 6 czerwca 1997 r. URL: http://isap.sejm.gov.pl/DetailsServlet?id=WDU19970
890555 [in Ukrainian].
Pozhar, V.H. (2013) Protsesual’nyj status poterpiloho za novym Kryminal’nym protsesual’nym kodeksom Ukrainy: pozytyvni kroky ta prohalyny pravovoi rehlamentatsii. Yurydychnyj chasopys Natsional’noi akademii vnutrishnikh sprav. 2 [in Ukrainian].
Vaschuk, B.L. (2016) Zapodiiannia nemajnovoi shkody iak pidstava dlia vyznannia iurydychnoi osoby poterpiloiu v kryminal’nomu protsesi. Porivnial’no-analitychne pravo. 1 [in Ukrainian].
Tolokol’nikov, S.V. (2012) Pravo iurydychnoi osoby na vidshkoduvannia nemajnovoi shkody v kryminal’nomu sudochynstvi za KPK Ukrainy 2012 r. Chasopys Akademiia Advokatury Ukrainy. 4(17) [in Ukrainian].
Skakun, O.F. (2006) Teoriia derzhavy i prava (entsyklopedychnyj kurs). Kharkiv: Espada [in Ukrainian].
Mykhajlova, N.V. (2013) Instytut zakhystu prav poterpiloho za novym KPK Ukrainy. Prava i suspil’stvo. 2 [in Ukrainian].
Pro sudovu praktyku v spravakh pro vidshkoduvannia moral’noi (nemajnovoi) shkody : Postanova Plenumu Verkhovnoho Sudu vid 31.03.1995 r. URL: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/v0004700-95 [in Ukrainian].
Shybino, V.P. (2012) Problema zabezpechennia prav poterpiloho za novym KPK Ukrainy 2012 r. URL: http://www.pravnuk.info/2013-12-27-15-13-14/382-problema-zabezpechennya-prav-poterpilogo-za-novim-kpk-ukra%D1%97ni-2012-roku.html [in Ukrainian].
Dyrektyva 2012/29/YeS Yevropejs’koho Parlamentu ta Rady vid 25 zhovtnia 2012 r., scho vstanovliuie minimal’ni standarty
schodo prav, pidtrymky ta zakhystu poterpilykh vid zlochyniv ta zaminiuie Ramkove rishennia Rady 2001/220/JHA, punkt 2 Deklaratyvnoi chastyny [in Ukrainian].
Kuchyns’ka, O.P. (2017) Deiaki pytannia protsesual’noho statusu poterpiloho za kryminal’nym protsesual’nym zakonodavstvom Ukrainy. Aktual’ni problemy udoskonalennia kryminal’noho protsesual’noho zakonodavstva (materialy Vseuk. nauk.-prakt. konferentsii, prysviachenoi do 70-richchia d.iu.n., profesora Yuriia Pavlovycha Alenina, Odesa, 21 kvitnia 2017 r.). Odesa: Yurydychna lit. [in Ukrainian].
How to Cite
Mudrak, I. (1). Concerning recognition of a person as a victim in a criminal proceeding. Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, (2), 175-180. https://doi.org/10.36695/2219-5521.2.2019.31
Section
Criminal law and criminology