Modern investigative interview models
The article presents the first scientific research in Ukraine on modern investigative interview models and is devoted to this procedural institute as a mechanism of collecting and recording accurate, credible and reliable information during criminal investigations in order to accomplish the objectives of criminal proceedings and to establish the facts of a particular case.
This research aimed to analyze main components of such specific investigative interview models as PEACE, PRICE, the RCMP phased interview and KREATIV. Second, it was intended to assess how useful for countries that implemented interviewing in their law systems consider those interview techniques of different types of participants in criminal proceedings (witnesses, victims, suspects).
Based on the analysis of the rules of criminal procedural law of individual countries, the scientific positions of scientists, international experience and achievements in the practical application of the interview the authors determine the most used investigative interview models, their advantages and disadvantages of the practical use and the contribution to law enforcement activities.
The results indicated at least three major benefits of investigative interview. First, it does not make use of coercive or manipulative strategies which in perspective reduces the chance that a statement will be deemed inadmissible. The second, assuming that obtaining a confession is the desired outcome, before and after the implementation of investigative interview, roughly 50% of interviewees confessed to their crimes; furthermore, the confession rate seems to hover around 50% in countries that continue to use interrogation techniques. And the third, the use of principles well-established scientific knowledge about how memory works (cognitive interview) and the conversation management approach is an effective memory enhancement technique for cooperative interviewees.
The authors accent that political, legal, and – most importantly – organizational steps will appear to be that is needed to make the necessary changes for investigative interview to achieve desired results. Summarizing the above, a number of comprehensive recommendations have been made in light of exceptional and discovered circumstances.
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