Ensuring of the rights and legal interests of the person in the conditions of “digitalization” of criminal proceedings
The article identifies and characterizes perspective vectors of digital transformation of pre-trial investigation through the prism of ensuring the rights and legitimate interests of the individual.
In particular, the first vector of digital transformation of pre-trial investigation is the improvement of the national model of detection and disclosure of criminal offenses. Its separation is due to the fact that the rules of the current criminal procedural legislation differ with certain archaicity about the latest manifestations of illegal acts on the network, since they contain general rules for the protection of rights and legitimate interests of a person against threats in reality, without considering the possibility of committing criminal offenses online. The main directions of this vector include: (1) determining the position of digital information and its media in the system of procedural sources of evidence; (2) expanding the legislatively regulated ways of generating evidentiary information in criminal proceedings; (3) change of conceptual approaches to the verification and evaluation of evidence in criminal proceedings.
At the same time, the second vector of digital transformation of pre-trial investigation should be the creation of a digital platform for the interaction of the criminal proceedings subjects. The article highlights the potential directions for implementing the idea of creating a designated platform: a) fixing the possibility of filing an application, notification of a criminal offense through electronic appeal; b) the creation of a single electronic register of pre-trial investigation and trial materials, which should ensure free access of parties to the material of proceedings. According to the authors of the article, such access to the materials of the proceedings should provide various possibilities: (1) online submission of procedural documents, exchange of documents between participants, courts, institutions; (2) online access to all publicly available material; (3) ensuring the identification of a person in criminal proceedings by means of an electronic signature whereby it can be established that the document is signed electronically by a specific person; (4) messaging online; (5) obtaining the results of the consideration of the petitions by the parties to the proceedings, and more.
Pashniev, D. V, (2006). Vlastyvosti kompiuternoi informatsikh ta osoblyvosti zbyrannia kompiuternykh slidiv. Uchen. zap. Tavrych. nats. un-ta ym. V. Y. Vernadskoho. Seryia «Iuryd. nauky». T. 19 (58), № 2, 296-300 [in Ukrainian].
Elektronnye nosytely ynformatsyy v krymynalystyke: monohrafyia / pod red. O S. Kuchyna (2017). Moskva. Yurlytynform 304 [in Russian].
Okonenko, R. I. (2016). Elektronnye dokazatelstva» i problemy obespecheniya prav grazhdan na zashitu tajny lichnoj zhizni v ugolovnom processe: sravnitelnyj analiz zakonodatelstva Soedinennyh Shtatov Ameriki i Rossijskoj Federacii: dis. …kand. yurid. nauk. Moskva [in Russian].
Shylo, A. V. (2019). Vykorystannia v kryminalnomu provadzhenni vidomostei, otrymanykh u rezultati provedennia nehlasnykh slidchykh (rozshukovykh) dii: avtoref. dys. ... kand. yuryd. nauk : 12.00.09; Nats. yuryd. un-t im. Yaroslava Mudroho. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
Skrypnyk, A. (2020) Pravylo «zakrytoho konteineru» v urainskykh pravovykh realiiakh. Kryminalnyi protses: suchasnyi vymir ta prospektyvni tendentsii : II Khark. kryminal. protsesual. poliloh : prysviach. aktual. pytanniam zastosuvannia zakhodiv zabezpechennia kryminal. provadzhennia (m. Kharkiv, 12 hrud. 2019 r.) / redkol. O. V. Kaplina, V. I. Maryniv, O. H. Shylo. Kharkiv, Pravo 29-31 [in Ukrainian].
Kuvychkov, S. I. (2016). Ispolzovanie v dokazyvanii po ugolovnym delam informacii, predstavlennoj v elektronnom vide: diss…kand. yurid. nauk. Nizhnij Novgorod 273 [in Russian].