Victimological profile of victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty or abduction

Keywords: crimes against liberty, honor and dignity of the person; unlawful deprivation of liberty, abduction, victim of a crime, victimological profile, victim behavior

Abstract

The article researches on the existing empirical data and provides a victimological profile of victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty and abduction (art. 146 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine) and reveals peculiarities of victim behavior of victims of these crimes.

The author has analyzed 370 criminal cases (proceedings) on unlawful deprivation of liberty or abduction reviewed by courts of Ukraine in 2010–2018. Data on 447 victims of such crimes were summarized.

In most cases, the crimes in question were committed against one person. Among victims 69,6 % were male and 30,4 % female. As regards the age of victims, 14,1% of them were under 18 years old (including 9,8 % of juveniles), 29,4 % – 18 to 30 years old, 33,7 % – 30 to 40 years old, 16,3 % – 40-50 years old, 6,5 % – over 50 years old. Only 2 of 447 (0,4 %) victims were not citizens of Ukraine. Only 29 % of victims were married (officially or de facto). However, the article emphasizes that the crimes in question are frequently committed in the context of family and domestic relations. Among the victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty or abduction 6,4 % had an unfinished high school education, 49,2 % – high school education, 33,9 % – special secondary education, 10,5 % – higher education. At the moment when the crime was committed against them, 41,8 % of victims were jobless or had only seasonal jobs, 39,4 % were employed, 11,6 % – pupils, 2,9 % – retired, 4,3 % entrepreneurs. Before the commitment of crimes in question, the majority of victims (near 60 %) were to a various degree acquainted with criminals (were engaged in family, marital, labor or other relations, were friends, fellow-villagers, neighbors or just knew them). The crimes in question were committed in the morning in 13,9 % of cases, in the daytime in 31,8 % of cases, in the evening in 37,3 % of cases, and at night in 17 % of cases.

People become victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty in places where they were (for example, when contrary to their will they are not allowed to leave a room or a car, are forced to stay in a house's basement, etc.). Most of the victims were captured by criminals on streets, in victims' apartments or in their vicinity.

Physical violence is frequently used towards a victim in order to unlawfully deprive a victim of liberty. As regards capturing a person and his/her abduction, physical violence happens regularly. On many occasions, physical violence is combined with psychological violence and deception.

As a rule, abducted persons are moved to short distances – mostly withing one locality (for instance, they are moved to outskirts of a town or to the nearest forest).

It is revealed in the article that in the majority of cases victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty or abduction did not resist actively.

Minimal and maximal terms victims were held by criminals vary dramatically – from 4-5 days to more than 11 months.

Unlawful withholding of victims is usually combined with causing bodily harm of different degrees, torturing, death threats, violation of human dignity.

Most typical behavior of victims of crimes in question is divided into unlawful, anti-social, neutral, incautious, and socially useful.

It concludes that a personality of a victim of unlawful deprivation of liberty and abduction plays an important (and in some particular issues – the decisive) role in the mechanism of committing this crime.

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How to Cite
Andrushko, A. (1). Victimological profile of victims of unlawful deprivation of liberty or abduction. Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, (2), 163-170. https://doi.org/10.36695/2219-5521.2.2019.29
Section
Criminal law and criminology