Unification of Conflict Rules in the Field of Hereditary Relations
The only and most effective way of unification of norms in the field of international hereditary relations is the adoption of international treaties nowadays. The norms of international treaties are the effective instrument that helps to eliminate the contradictions between the material norms and conflict rules of states in this field.
Issues of unification of norms in the field of hereditary relations in private international law have been studied by a set of Ukrainian and foreign researches, such as: Brаwn M.І., Galushchenko H.V., Hetman-Pavlova I.H, Vilkova N.H., Dmytriieva H. K., Dovgert A. S., Karmaza О.О., Kysil V. I., Lunts L.А., Medvediev I. H., Orlova N.V., Rubanov А.А., Stepaniuk А.А., Tolstykh V.L., Fursa Y.І., Fursa S.А., Khachaturian А.H. etc. However, there are still many issues that need research and are relevant.
Nowadays, international unification in the field of inheritance is insignificant. Only a few multilateral international treaties have been adopted at the international level, including: Convention of 5 October 1961 on the Conflicts of Laws Relating to the Form of Testamentary Dispositions (Hague); Convention Providing a Uniform Law on the Form of an International Will (Washington, D.C., October 26, 1973); Convention of 1 August 1989 on the Law Applicable to Succession to the Estates of Deceased Persons (Hague); Convention of 2 October 1973 Concerning the International Administration of the Estates of Deceased Persons (Hague).
Having analyzed the norms of multilateral international treaties in the field of international inheritance, we can conclude that the unified approach exists only in the area of conflict regulation of issues of inheritance of real estate. As for conflict rules in the field of inheritance by will and in the field of right to inheritance, conflict rules differ in their content.
The attention is also drawn to the fact that one of the most successful attempts to achieve the international unification of conflict rules in the field of inheritance is the adoption by the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union of the Regulation on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and enforcement of decisions and acceptance and enforcement of authentic instruments in matters of succession and on the creation of a European Certificate of Succession.
For Ukraine, the most successful is the unification of conflict rules in the field of inheritance, conducted at the bilateral level, through the adoption of bilateral international treaties in the field of providing legal assistance in civil relations. Having analyzed the content of such treaties, we can draw attention to both the different approaches to understanding the principle of equality in the field of inheritance, and the different approaches in the area of conflict regulation of the ability to make and cancel a will, the form of a will and its validity, the determination of a mandatory share in the inheritance, etc. We can also observe that some international legal aid treaties include only conflict rules regarding the form of a will, and the other treaties regulate the issue of the ability to make a will, the form of a will, its amendment and cancellation.
In the area of inheritance, international legal aid treaties are based on a dualistic principle, namely the division of hereditary property into movable and immovable property. With respect to the inheritance of immovable property, international legal aid treaties take single approach in regulation and determine the connecting factor with the law of the state in the territory of which the property is situated. With regard to the inheritance of movable property, international legal aid treaties use different connecting criteria, for example: the law of the state of which the testator was a national at the time of death; the law of the state in which territory the testator had his last residence, etc. It should also be noted that bilateral international agreements on legal aid for civil relations, omit a large number of legal issues, in particular conflict regulation of: the ability to make certain types of wills; determination of the permissible terms of a will; the boundaries of the disposal of hereditary property, etc. Thus, despite the presence of a set of international treaties, the need for unification of both material and conflict rules in the field of international inheritance remains.
Karmaza, O.O. (2007) Mizhnarodne spadkove pravo: Naukovo-praktychnyy posibnyk. K.: Vydavetsʹ Fursa S.Ya.: KNT [in
Mezhdunarodnoe chastnoe pravo: Uchebnyk. Pod.red. G.K. Dmytryevoy. PBOYUL Hryzhenko E.M., 2001 [in Ukrainian].
Dovhert, A.S. (1997) Systema pryvatnoho prava ta struktura proektu novoho Tsyvilʹnoho kodeksu Ukrayiny. Ukrayinsʹke pravo. 1 [in Ukrainian].
Haazʹka konventsiya pro koliziyi zakoniv stosovno formy spadkovykh rozporyadzhenʹ vid 5 zhovtnya 1961 roku URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_424 [in Ukrainian].
Vashynhtonsʹka konventsiya, shcho peredbachaye unifikovanyy zakon pro mizhnarodnyy zapovit vid 26 zhovtnya 1973 roku URL: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_b13 [in Ukrainian].
Karmaza, O.O. (2006) Spadkuvannya u suchasnomu mizhnarodnomu pryvatnomu pravi : avtoref. dys. …kand. yur. nauk : spets. 12.00.03 «Tsyvilʹne pravo i tsyvilʹnyy protses; simeyne pravo; mizhnarodne pryvatne pravo». Kyyiv [in Ukrainian].
Dovhert, A.S. (2012) Mizhnarodne pryvatne pravo: osoblyva chastyna: pidruchnyk. Kyyiv: Alerta [in Ukrainian].
Konventsiya pro pravo, shcho zastosovuyetʹsya do spadkuvannya mayna pomerlykh osib, pryynyata u Haazi 1 serpnya 1989 r. URL: https://assets.hcch.net/docs/5af01fa4-c81f-4e99-b214-64421135069f.pdf [in Ukrainian].
Kysilʹ, V. (2013) Spadkovi vidnosyny v suchasnomu mizhnarodnomu pryvatnomu pravi. Pravo Ukrayiny. 7 [in Ukrainian].
Konventsiya pro pravovi vidnosyny i pravovu dopomohu u tsyvilʹnykh, simeynykh ta kryminalʹnykh spravakh vid 22 sichnya 1993 roku. URL: http://zakon3.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/997_009/print1444315331426685 [in Ukrainian].
Abramenkov, M.S. (2013) Nasledstvennoe pravo: uchenyk dlya mahystrov. M.: Yzdatelʹstvo Yurayt [in Ukrainian].
Dovhert, A.S. (2013) Mizhnarodne pryvatne pravo: osoblyva chastyna: pidruchnyk. Kyyiv: Alerta [in Ukrainian].
Mykhayliv, M.O. (2018) Mizhnarodni dohovory Ukrayiny pro pravovu dopomohu v tsyvilʹnykh spravakh yak dzherelo pravovoho rehulyuvannya spadkuvannya za zapovitom v mizhnarodnomu pryvatnomu pravi. Pidpryyemnytstvo, hospodarstvo i pravo. 10 [in Ukrainian].
Rehlament Yevropeysʹkoho Parlamentu ta Rady Yevropeysʹkoho Soyuzu pro kompetentsiyu, zastosovuvane pravo, vyznannya i vykonannya rishenʹ, pryynyattya i vykonannya notarialʹnykh aktiv z pytanʹ spadkuvannya, a takozh pro stvorennya yevropeysʹkoho svidotstva pro spadkuvannya vid 4 lypnya 2012 roku№ 650/2012 URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:201:0107:0134:EN:PDF [in Ukrainian].
Slaboshpytsʹka, U.O. (2015) Systema koliziynykh norm Rymu IV: osnovni polozhennya Rehlamentu (YES) № 650/2012. Naukovyy visnyk UzhNU. Seriya «Pravo». 34 [in Ukrainian].